“Books and doors are the same thing. You open them, and you go through into another world.”

Quote by Jeanette Winterson

Blog by Angela Fuimaono, Summer Scholar 2022

Picturebooks are truly doors, windows and mirrors to different worlds (Bishop, 1990). For many children who are Pasifika there are not many books which depict their own world, and even less written in their own languages. With over 13 percent of New Zealand children being of Pacific descent it is hard to understand how so little resources are available for them. Last year’s University of Waikato Summer Scholar, Cushla Foe, was only able to find 91 Pacific Picturebooks available for students written in the last ten years (Kelly-Ware, Foe, & Daly, 2021). As a mother of four Samoan children I found it hard to find books to read to my own children when they were younger. They were not in libraries or bookstores. And the ones I did find were very hard to read and didn’t engage my children’s imagination. Being able to be involved with research that was looking at how teachers and children respond to Pacific Picturebooks was something that felt so right and so needed.

The pilot study took place at a kindergarten staffed by Pasifika teachers and catering for Pasifika children and their families. It was an eye opening experience which made me question many different aspects of the research process. How we engaged with teachers and children needed to be relational and done with the intention of creating va (space) for all those involved to share their cultural capital. Together, as researchers and the teachers involved, we met together to have a talanoa with a focus on relationship building which strengthened and enriched the observations and data collected. This knowledge sharing was instrumental in how we chose to structure the research. Sharing stories about the children, ourselves and the research was a natural way to convey complex ideas in keeping with the purpose of talanoa (to share stories, build empathy and to make wise decisions for the collective good). When teachers and children interact in a kindergarten which values deeper connections, a simple analysis of those interactions does not do the relationships justice.

One story we delved further into was during a quiet day at the kindergarten. The children were able to make connections to the imagery in the Pacific Picturebook being read by their teacher. Because of the deep relationships that existed between children and teachers, this amazing teacher was able to extend the children’s knowledge and learning by putting the book down and engaging them in play related to the picturebook. She worked together with the children to construct their own traditional fale (house) from recycled resources found around the kindergarten. Many teachers would have continued to read without giving children the space to pursue their own learning, so it was an amazing experience to see the children supported by their teacher to learn new skills extending from their own previous cultural knowledge. She herself said it was a “wow moment” for her. This experience and others showcase the way that emergent curriculum can benefit and supplement children’s learning. These children were able to walk through the doors of the book and after they had made their house the teacher finished reading the book in the new fale connecting back to the journey they had taken through the pages of the story.

In Te Whāriki, the Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood curriculum there are different strands and principles which weave together to create an environment that fosters success for all students. There is a focus on culture, language and identity (Ministry of Education, 2017). When children can see their language and culture depicted on the vibrant pages of a picturebook it strengthens their identity as strong Pacific Island children who have a wealth of cultural capital to draw on as they progress through their school journey -a journey that can be fraught with peril, as they navigate a system that is dominated by European discourses and forms of knowledge. Our research did not just look at how children responded to Pacific picturebooks, but also how the teachers responded. I’ve learnt that the way teachers’ value books from different cultures can affect children’s own feelings of self-worth.

Many interesting findings have come from this short pilot research study. One finding that I found intriguing was how not all Pacific picturebooks are made equal. There are some books which are simple translations from English, where the imagery and content do not mirror the authentic culture it is meant to represent. Yet, other books are beautiful portals to a world you can recognise and appreciate through the stunning illustrations and the style of writing, which effortlessly include culturally specific words. Also the content is true to the beliefs and values of the peoples as a whole. Reading these books can transport you back to an island you love with a flip of the page. These are the books which our children need to be able to connect to, rather than negative or whitewashed stereotypes portrayed in far too many of the Pacific books available.

Picturebooks are a well-established part of many western societies. However, for Pacific Island nations much of their knowledge is transmitted through song, dance and oral performances. For many children at the kindergarten it was hard to learn the social norms surrounding the use and care of books. Yet they readily sang songs in many different languages, along with sometimes complex hand movements. They easily expressed cultural values of love, respect, inclusion, belonging, service and spirituality. These values, all seen as factors of success, are expressed in Tapasā: Cultural competencies framework for teachers of Pacific learners (MoE, 2018). Judging by the Tapasā Pasifika Success Compass (p. 4) these young children are well on their way to being successful Pasifika adults. Though if they attend a primarily European school, which is inevitable, they face the real possibility that those attributes will be given less value than having the ability to read, write and talk in a language different from their own. How wonderful it would be to see a system of teachers and students who worked together to provide space for all ways of being – for more doors to be opened into the rich and unique worlds of the Pacific Islands, which teachers are willing to step through and embrace other understandings of the world.


Bishop, R. S. (1990). Mirrors, windows and glass sliding doors. Perspectives: Choosing and Using Books for the Classroom, 6(3), ix–xi.

Kelly-Ware, J., Foe, C., & Daly, N. (2021). Exploring Pacific picturebooks: A summer scholar’s perspective. Literacy Forum NZ, 36(3), 29–39.

Ministry of Education. (2017). Te Whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa: Early childhood curriculum.

Ministry of Education. (2018). Tapasā: Cultural competencies framework for teachers of Pacific learners.

About the author

Angela Matemate Fuimaono has recently completed a Bachelor of Social Sciences degree at The University of Waikato and is currently studying towards a Master’s degree in Education and Developmental Psychology at Massey University. She was the recipient of a 2021/2022 Summer Scholarship from The University of Waikato in the Division of Education.


An Introductory Blog: The Power of Talanoa and Picturebooks

From Angela Matemate Fuimaono

Growing up I never applied for scholarships, I thought only the smartest, brainiest people could get them. And that wasn’t me. I was the mischief one, who liked to run around and get into trouble. But that life took me on a journey, I eventually got an Arts Diploma which I never used, I moved around and met many wonderful and unique people. And then I met my husband and started a family. We were cultural opposites. He was from Samoa, an island in the Pacific, and I was from deepest Southern Africa. Many people said the old adage, ‘opposites attract’ about us, but what they didn’t know was that we were perfectly in sync. Many of our core values and ideals were the same! Instead of focusing on our differences we chose to learn from each other and grow towards a future that was inclusive of both our individual and cultural identities. As the years went on we had children and saw the way that education was placed for them as Pacific students within a predominately deficit thinking system. I found it hard to find books written in Samoan or which depicted Samoan characters. I had to actively advocate for an equitable learning environment simply due to others’ prejudice and stereotypes.

So, when I was finally in a position to study again I gained knowledge which took me down the pathway that could help students like my own children. My journey, though longer than most, had brought me to a place where I felt brainy and smart enough to look at scholarships, and when I saw one that spoke to my own struggles I leapt at the chance to apply. To be able to be a part of research which was specifically for Pacific children was a dream come true. The lead researchers, Janette Kelly-Ware and Nicola Daly, were looking at how faiaoga (teachers) and tamaiti (children) responded to Pacific Picturebooks, and how these findings could potentially support the Turu (competencies) and Goals found in the Early Childhood Education (ECE) curriculum, Te Whāriki, and cultural competencies framework for Pasifika learners, Tapasā. Working with dedicated and inspirational women has made my first venture into research and scholarship a fundamentally strengthening experience.

Our first chance to meet with the amazing group of Kaiako who would pilot the first part of the research was an eye-opening experience for many reasons. The main reason, from a palagi (white person) perspective is that of the concept of ‘Talanoa’, this means to speak, and communicate with all those involved in a safe space where all feel welcome and valued. Many times a western style of research will position the researcher as having more power and status. However, within a community-centred approach, everyone is given their due respect and has power and valuable knowledge to add to the research process. As three white women, we knew that we did not have the cultural capital needed to fully comprehend and speak with confidence about all things Pasifika. We approached a kindergarten which had children and teachers from a variety of Pacific Island nations who now reside in New Zealand. Many of the children and even some of the teachers were born here and have dual heritage.

This complex and unique situation called for cultural humility on our parts. Therefore at the outset of the research we had a talanoa – we came together as equals, we shared our stories, our food and drink, and our hopes and ideas surrounding the research. It was exciting to see how we all had similar yet unique stories to share. Many of the women or their children had been stereotyped by others, and all were wholly committed to helping children to succeed. It was also evident as we continued to talk that each woman had her own view of picturebooks. When we started to showcase the books which had been sourced by Nicola Daly and Cushla Foe, the previous University of Waikato Summer Scholar, it became apparent that the books which depicted Pacific stories and children had an affirming effect. Though even within these books which purport to be for Pacific children there are examples of cultural inauthenticity. One of the Kaiako (teacher) was quick to notice, as she scrolled through a book written in the Samoan language, that the illustrations still had English words. The book had been translated from English into multiple different languages and the illustrations had not changed for any of them. The images were of vehicles which had no Pacific Island significance, and the children depicted appeared as generic as possible.

It is encouraging to see that attempts have been made to provide more resources for Pacific children, but there is a long way to go before authentic picturebooks are widely available and their use has become normalised in schools and libraries around New Zealand. There is also a long way to go before the adults involved in writing, illustrating, publishing and buying picturebooks are willing to expend the time and money to be culturally inclusive. Our hope is that this research can take a step in that direction, by showing the positive effects that representation can have for the cultures, languages and identities of all New Zealand children.


Exploring Pasifika picturebooks by Cushla Foe

Over the course of what would normally be my university summer break, I was granted the opportunity to conduct valuable research specifically around Pasifika picturebooks. Both Te Whāriki (Ministry of Education [MoE], 2017) and Tapasā: Cultural competencies framework for teachers of Pacific learners (MoE, 2018) recognise the importance of immersing children in environments that reflect and affirm their culture, beliefs, knowledge, and values, in order to foster their success and well-being. Therefore, the curriculum and education that Pasifika children experience should reflect who they are as members of their communities, and identity, language, and culture should guide teacher pedagogy and practice. The aim of this project was to deepen our learning about Pasifika identities and values enabling teachers to “better understand and respond to Pacific learners using picturebooks as pedagogical tools in diverse classrooms” (Daly & McKoy, 2013). 

During my research I located a total of 91 picturebooks reflecting a wide range of Pasifika nations, cultures, and languages. Most of these picturebooks were only found and accessed through the National Library online database and interloan service. Once I received these books I read and analysed them according to the cultural content within each book inclusive of both text and illustrations. One of the main focuses of the project was to identify picturebooks that were authentic and written by ‘insiders’, or at least involved input from Pasifika individuals and communities with authentic cultural knowledge and understanding. 

I have shared one book below, but to access the full list of Pasifika picturebooks please refer to the annotated bibliography. 

Mose and the Manumea (Va’afusuaga & Stirnemann, 2018) was sourced from my local library here in Tauranga Moana. Its Samoan counterpart O Mose ma le Manumea (Va’afusuaga & Stirnemann, 2018) was only retrievable from the National Library of New Zealand in Auckland. This Little Island Press publication has been carefully curated by both Jane Va’afusuaga and Rebecca Stirnemann. Though neither of the authors are of Pacific Island descent, both have valuable first-hand knowledge and experience of Samoan ways of living, being and doing. Va’afusuaga draws on four years of teaching experience in Apia, Samoa and her life in the village of Falease’ela where she lives with her Samoan husband and children. Full immersion in village life has helped Jane to gain genuine insights into the language, culture, church, and customs of Samoan people. Stirnemann has also experienced living in Samoa for seven years as an ecologist dedicating her time and efforts to protecting native birds of Samoa including the endangered Manumea (tooth-billed pigeon). 

Initially in the picturebook, we get a glimpse into a fale where the walls are decorated with family photos and ‘ula (garlands). Grandma sweeps the floor with a salu broom while Mose and his Grandpa sit on a woven pandanus mat discussing the endangered Manumea. We follow Mose and his aiga (family) on their hunt for the Manumea as they navigate the tropical Samoan landscape and its abundance of teuila (the state flower of Samoa), taro plants, coconut and banana trees, native wildlife, glorious white sand beaches, and dense forests. 

This picturebook touches on topics including conservation and Samoan culture, living and language, all the while exploring Pasifika values from a broader perspective.

The native tooth-billed pigeon of Samoa is scientifically known as the Didunculus strigirostris and is one of the closest living relatives of the extinct dodo. Found exclusively in the islands of Samoa, this native bird is in dire need of protection for if the Manumea becomes extinct, sadly the species will be lost forever. The Manumea is not only a fundamental part of Samoan culture, history and heritage but it also plays a crucial ecological role ensuring that fruits are distributed to promote the growth of native trees. In 1997, it was estimated that around 4000 of these birds existed but unfortunately those statistics have dwindled. More recent predictions indicate that there may only be between 150 to 200 Manumea remaining.

Throughout this picturebook, the scarcity of the Manumea and its endangered status is regularly mentioned with Mose acknowledging how great it would be if he could help to save the birds. Toward the end of the book you will find an informative section that offers further information about the bird and ways in which people can contribute to the protection of these beautiful animals.

Pasifika picturebooks play a critical role in education to ensure that the strengths, interests, needs, identities, languages and cultures of Pasifika children are reflected within their environment. Using picturebooks as pedagogical tools better informs teachers so they can become more culturally competent and inclusive in relation to Pasifika learners and expand the range of connections to language, culture, and identity for Pasifika children and their families in educational contexts (Te Whāriki, MoE, 2017).

Cushla Foe
Summer Research Scholar (2020–2021)


Silent picturebooks by Nicola Daly

I am thinking a lot about silent picturebooks these days as the Waikato Picturebook Research Unit approaches its annual picturebook seminar (November 12, 2020), this year focusing on silent picturebooks ( My usual focus when I research picturebooks is the languages used in multilingual picturebooks, so it’s really good for me to be thinking about the power of picturebooks which use illustration alone to tell their story. The absence of a written language means that all (sighted) readers can follow the story, telling it in their own language if they wish, and this is the reason for the creation of the IBBY silent picturebook collection which now travels the world, and reflects the work IBBY has done in establishing a library in Lampedusa, Italy for local and refugee children. Between November 2-27, 2020 the IBBY Silent Book Collection will be on display at the University of Waikato Library, and members of the public are welcome to attend.

I’ll share one book below, and then please follow the link to read my other recommendations.

I found this book with its Spanish title Migrantes at the Guadalajara Book fair in December 2019 and then discovered that Gecko had bought the rights to publish it in English as Migrants (2021). The story begins as we are introduced to a skeleton draped in floral cloth beside a large red beaked Ibis bird (a messenger between birth and death). The skeleton joins a group of anthropomorphised characters of various shapes and sizes, adults and children who are moving together through a gloomy forest. We know from the title that these are migrants; we know from the faces and clothing that this is not migration by choice- these are refugees with death (symbolised by the skeleton) close at their heels. The Peruvian author Isse Watanabe has said that her book is about empathy and through its pages we witness the journey of this group with insights into the experiences of refugees. We see the group move through a forest and then reach a body of water where they scramble into a boat and cross, losing a member along the way. Finally they come to a place where the trees have colour and there is a fruit on the ground- which I interpret as a symbol of hope. This book deals with complex topics including courage, loss and hope, and the images do this sensitively and powerfully.

The power of the silent book lies in the illustrations and how each reader is allowed to create their own words around those images.  This brief snapshot of one of my favourites shows that they can deal with very sophisticated and complex issues. They offer opportunities for interaction and meaning negotiation for a parent with a child, and a classroom teacher with a whole class.

To read my other recommendations including Raymond Briggs’s Snowman, Molly Idle’s  Flora and the Flamingo, Aaron Becker’s Journey, Shaun Tan’s The Arrival , Jeannie Bakers’  Mirror  and David Weisner’s Flotsam,  please fo to the Gecko Press Blog.

Nicola Daly


New Zealand Books Awards for Children and Young Adults 2020–Picturebook Category

The New Zealand Books Awards for Children and Young Adults recently announced finalists in each of their seven categories on 4 June 2020.  Nominations from books published between 1 April 2019 and 31 Match 2020 were eligible to be nominated. Since 1945 book awards for New Zealand children’s fiction have been awarded, and since then the awards have had a variety of names and sponsorship, including Aim and New Zealand Post. Since 2016 main sponsorship is from Creative New Zealand and the Library and Information Association of New Zealand and Australian (LIANZA).

In the picturebook category this year are  five finalists, and award winners in all categories will be announced online on 12 August. Here are some notes from me on the five finalists.

Abigail and the birth of the Sun by Matthew Cunningham and Sara Wilkins (Puffin). The subtitle of this picturebook, ‘A curious girl explores big ideas’ gives us a fairly accurate overview of the plot. As she gets ready for bed, Abigail asks where the sun and stars come from, and the rest of the book follows her father’s answer to this question. The author, Matthew Cunningham, is a Wellington-based historian, and I think this shows through in the clarity of his explanation of very complex ideas. Sara Wilkins, whose work I am familiar with, most recently from The Longest Breakfast (Gecko, 2018) fills the page with rich oranges and yellows as Abigail’s dad explains the Big Bang Theory, and adds details which young children will love, such as a cat, never mentioned in the text, on every page. The setting for this story is fairly non specific, except for on one page where New Zealand readers may spot a tui and a puriri moth in the illustration. This picturebook would be my pick for the winner.

The cover of Santa’s Worst Christmas (Huia), written by Huia (individual names of the authors are not supplied) and illustrated by Isobel Joy Te Aho-White is full of detail and colour. This story is clearly in a New Zealand summer setting in a vibrant and diverse coastal community. In this story Santa decides that he is not going to perform his usual Christmas duties because of a terrible set of experiences in the previous year’s Christmas; the community helps  to change his mind by creating a Santa Survival Kit and Christmas is saved. The utterances of Santa as he meets various challenges include a range of humorous alliterative phrases, very pleasing to the ear, including ‘suffering sleigh bells’, ‘ramping reindeers’ and ‘tinsel tarnation’, but overall this story does not work for me.

How Māui Slowed the Sun (Upstart Press) showcases this wonderful writing and illustrator skills of Donovan Bixley, one of New Zealand’s most prolific children’s writers. Bixley retells the well known legend of Māui deciding that daylight is not long enough, and working with his brothers using flax ropes to catch and slow the sun. As he did with his last retelling of a traditional Māori legend (How Māui Fished up the North Island) Bixley has carefully consulted with and acknowledged language and tikanga experts Dr. Darryn Joseph and Keri Opai , and this somewhat alleviates any concerns one might have concerning a Pākehā author/illustrator telling a Māori story. While I don’t personally enjoy the graphic cartoon style of the illustrations, I am sure many readers will enjoy their detail and colour. I did enjoy, however, the use of speech bubbles in the illustrations, and the way in which Te Reo Māori words and phrases are used in the predominantly English language text.

The Gobbley Degook Book. A Joy Cowley Anthology (Gecko) is, as the title suggests a collection of 20 of Cowley’s poems and short stories illustrated by Giselle Clarkson. The high quality of the design and production of this book reflects the mana of Cowley as one of our most highly regarded children’s authors. Cowley’s writing reflects her love of sound and story, and is of the highest quality; the choice of Clarkson to illustrate contributes significantly to  the high quality of the writing. There are so many stories and poems to enjoy here, but a favourite of mine is Uncle Andy’s Singlet (p. 62) about the different ways in which Uncle Andy uses his singlet (catching fish, drying dishes), leaving it rather smelly. The inclusion of a portrait of Cowley on the last page next to her quote about the importance of small is the perfect way to end the book.

Mini Whinny. Goody Four-Shoes (Scholastic) written by Stacy Gregg and illustrated by Ruth Paul follows on from the 2019 finalist Mini Winny. Happy Birthday to Me following the escapades of the miniature horse Mini Whinny. In the latest book, a new miniature horse arrives at the stables, and Mini Whinny is very jealous as Goody Four-Shoes appears to be good at everything Mini Whinny is not. The pace and arc of the story and the use of interesting language reflects the considerable skills of Gregg who is most famous for her junior fiction novels in the Pony club Secrets series. This pivot into picturebooks has been really successful, and the pairing with Ruth Paul who adds so much to the textual story in her detailed illustrations is very successful. Who knew that horses could have such expressive faces!

I hope you get a chance to look through some of the finalists for this year’s awards. Often bookshops and libraries will have them on display. The winners will be announced online on Wednesday August 12.



The picturebook-writing professor and the adventures of a bear in lockdown, and other free Coronavirus picturebooks

April/ May 2020

Recently I spied a link to the Education Hub where I found a series of three picturebooks about a bear who goes into lockdown. The books contain great text and photographs depicting daily life from the diary of a bear. Given the currency of this situation and the bears in my window looking out onto the street I decided to investigate. I tracked down the author and emailed Professor Carol Mutch from the University of Auckland about her latest ‘output’. Carol replied, “I didn’t expect them to take off the way that they have but I’m delighted that people are finding them useful and fun. There will be one more book but then Bear will go into hibernation as winter is coming — and I need to get my life back :-).”

On the back cover of the first book, Carol wrote, “On March 25, 2020, New Zealand went into lockdown. This was the final step of a four-stage approach to fighting the COVID-19 virus. Bear’s story was originally written to entertain family and friends and each day a new episode appeared on the author’s Facebook page. The story gained wider attention as it is not just a story about a toy bear. It contains many aspects of life under lockdown that readers will resonate with. It can also provide parents and teachers with an opportunity to discuss Bear’s adventures with children and relate them to their own experiences.”

The first book is called Bear goes into lockdown. We meet Bear and follow his first week in lockdown as he begins to make sense of how his world and the world of his humans has changed. The second book is called Bear settles into lockdown. Bear finds that lockdown is not always easy but you can change your attitude and try to make the best of it. Having Easter weekend to look forward to provided a bright spot in Bear’s lockdown.

The third (and meant to be final) book in the series is called Bear stays in lockdown. Bear faces more highs and lows. He joins in as many household activities as he can but he misses his friends. To his delight, his best friend Alligator comes out of quarantine and makes a surprise visit. After some fun with Alligator, Bear learns that it is important to stay true to who you are.

Another email from Carol arrived just as this blog was going to press. She wrote, “I have had as much feedback from adults as children. They have told me that getting up each morning to see Bear’s adventures on Facebook was often the highlight of their day. One woman said, “I have to keep reminding myself that Bear is not real. I have had many people ask when they are coming out in hard copy — I guess that’s my next challenge to find a publisher”.

And surprise, surprise she sent another book in pdf form and the link is now available. The fourth book is called Bear ends his lockdown. Bear ends his lockdown, Bear and Alligator make their own fun, which doesn’t always go well. When it is announced that Level 4 lockdown will end after Anzac weekend, Bear has some hard choices to make. Should he stay and enjoy a little more freedom or is it time for him to go back to the toybox?

Picturebooks such as the Bear in lockdown series can act as both mirrors and windows on the world. As mirrors they can reflect children’s own lives (familiar objects and content), and as windows they can give children a chance to learn about someone else’s life (unfamiliar objects and content). These ideas are eloquently described by Bishop (1990) who states,

Books are sometimes windows, offering views of worlds that may be real or imagined, familiar or strange. These windows are also sliding glass doors, and readers have only to walk through in imagination to become part of whatever world has been created or recreated by the author. When lighting conditions are just right, however, a window can also be a mirror (p.ix)

Professor Carol Mutch’s delightful books are a fine example of the power of picturebooks and they exemplify this famous quote. Her photograph illustrations like those in many picturebooks can be children’s first visual introduction to an outside world full of people, places and things that are different from or similar to their own (Kelly-Ware & Daly, 2019).

The Bear in lockdown series mirrors what is happening in our lives at the moment with us having been in lockdown for the past six weeks. They are also windows and show us a bear living among humans with his friends – sometimes in the window or on the letterbox or up a tree near the footpath like I saw on my neighbourhood walk yesterday. I look forward to reading these and other books with my great grandchildren when this rahui (lockdown) is over.

Carol gave us permission to put links to these books up on our site, advising that they are not exclusive to any one outlet. Blog readers may also be interested in a digital book about Coronavirus illustrated by Gruffalo illustrator Axel Scheffler released in early April 2020. This information book is aimed at primary school age children, and is free for anyone to read on screen or print out, about the coronavirus and the measures taken to control it. Here is another list of 19 free ebooks about coronavirus.

Bishop, R.S. (1990). Mirrors, windows and sliding glass doors. Perspectives, 6(3), ix-xi.
Kelly-Ware, J., & Daly, N. (2019). Using picturebook illustrations to help young children understand diversity. International Art in Early Childhood Research Journal 2019 Research Journal Number 1, Article 1.


Storytelling the Kamishibai way

Kamishibai is a Japanese story theatre tradition (kami = paper, shibai = drama) that I encountered for the first time on my recent European study tour. Initially I saw it at Lernwerkstatt der Zurich Schule – a Learning Workshop/ Atelier at a school in Berlin

The Kamishibai – Narrative Theatre featured in this image is manufactured by Betzold. This abridged quote from their website describes the special kind of theatre as follows:

Slowly the doors of the Kamishibai narrative theatre open and the spectators are spellbound by the first picture. Now the story can begin. No matter whether you tell the stories, the pictures captivate the children’s attention…’Image-based storytelling’ turns younger children into zealous and concentrated listeners – even over longer storytelling phases. The children are always in view. You won’t miss any of their gestures or facial expressions. Conversely, you can keep an eye on your audience and close gaps in understanding as soon as you recognize them. With Kamishibai picture stories you also support the acquisition of a new language

In Brussels Belgium, I was delighted to see Kamishibai again at ABC House (Art Basics for Children). I visited this dynamic research centre focused on arts, culture and education with a group of artists/ art educators from Amsterdam. Conceived as an interactive and artistic laboratory for play, work, research, discovery and expression, anyone committed to arts education and cultural mediation is welcome at ABC House.

Wim De Graeve, our host for the day told us about Kamishibai and pointed us to their website for further information which I have reproduced here for the benefit of WaiPRU Blog readers.

Wim pictured with a mobile kamishibai – a story theatre cabinet for showing paper dramas

The Kamishibai is a story theatre cabinet into which large (A3) prints with the text on the back are slid as the narrator reads or tells a story. With every new episode, the narrator shifts a print from the box, and continues with the next one. A kamishibai story is a bit like a delayed animation film – image and language go together perfectly.

ABC House produces approximately 50 kamishibai theatres each year for sale to schools and centres, libraries and out-of-school care programmes. They also organise kamishibai stories on request.  Cultural centres, schools, libraries or festivals are ideal places for storytellers to perform on a kamishibai bicycle, or in a kamishibai corner or a nomad tent.

ABC has more than 200 narratives for kamishibai storytelling and the collection is constantly growing. They transform existing picture books or give assignments to draftspeople and authors. The range includes Japanese ‘traditionals’, and stories from contemporary authors / illustrators. All stories can be borrowed for free or copies can be purchased online.

The website describes Kamishibai as part of an age-old visual narrative tradition that originated in Buddhist temples in Japan during the 12th century. Monks used image roles to pass on moralizing stories to a predominantly illiterate audience. The kamishibai storytelling technique continued for centuries and had an unprecedented success between the two world wars. For thirty years, from 1920 to 1950, this narrative technique caused a furore in Japan as Kamishibai storytellers rode around on bicycles which had the small wooden theatre mounted on them (like in the image above). They installed themselves on street corners or in parks and at that time more than five million children and adults enjoyed the Kamishibai almost daily. With the rise of television, the mobile storytellers slowly disappeared from the streets. Apparently this unique story theatre has been making a worldwide comeback for several years

I am keen to find a local craftsperson to make a Kamishibai theatre for use with student teachers and possibly at Picturebook Club. Maybe we can also produce Kamishibai stories following the Aotearoa New Zealand tradition of ‘blown-up books’.

Janette Kelly-Ware

March 2020


Picture books for Kupang

Blog post by Sonja Arndt, University of Melbourne

Early childhood settings (PAUD) in the Kupang region, in Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia, have never had picture books from their local culture. Mostly they have been using picture books that tell stories from other more dominant Indonesian islands like Java, or imported stories in picture books donated by international donors or NGOs. These books are often wonderful – but they do not tell the local Kupang stories. Nor do they use local languages. They tell stories about far-away places, sometimes in foreign languages, and they show images of children, animals or landscapes that the teachers and the children in Kupang do not experience or sometimes even know.

In 2018 and 2019 Donella Cobb and I, then both senior lecturers in the Faculty of Education at the University of Waikato, worked with UNICEF, supported by the New Zealand Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFaT), on an early childhood teacher education programme in Kupang. Our aim was to strengthen the model of teacher education, amongst other things by elevating teachers’ contributions to their pedagogical practices through strengthening the idea of peer mentoring – this alone was a distinct shift from traditional often top-down teacher education models led by Western countries in Indonesia. Backed by our own research, we were extremely aware that, as outsiders, we were unfamiliar with the nuances of the local cultures, and could not make any assumptions about local practices, attitudes or orientations to very young children and their education that had been passed down over generations.

Underlying our programme design, implementation and follow up, was the critical importance of elevating teachers’ and children’s local culture and language. Home culture and language retention play a crucial role in meaningful teaching and learning. This was a critically important foundation in our workshops and engagements. Teachers told us of the non-existence of local picture books with local stories and images of local scenes, animals or people. Nevertheless, having books and the written word (e.g. in posters) in PAUD was clearly seen as important, and the imported picture books were desirable over having none at all.

One afternoon in a workshop in 2018 we asked teachers to go home and remember a story from their childhoods. It was to be one they could share the next day with their peers, aimed at giving a chance to play with the pleasure and the art of storytelling. Our work was focused on developing teachers’ and mentors’ work in PAUD in the region, including much attention to teacher identity. Childhood memories were an important component of this reflective work, and so the next morning the stories that teachers remembered from their own childhoods came pouring out.

A whirlwind of surprises arose from this story telling. Having shared the stories with each other, there was discussion, leading to a brainstorm: what makes a good story? And then: what makes a good picture book? Then teachers and mentors had the opportunity to illustrate and then narrate their own local stories into books, following their own brainstormed criteria. The outcome of this activity – and local and national support – was that 30 books were published, with over 100 more created by teachers and mentors (who continue still, to encourage others in their own cluster groups to continue making more).

Each of the 100 PAUD involved in the programme now has a full set of the published Kupang stories and picture books: that they made! Furthermore, PAUD and other early childhood settings across Indonesia now have access to the books, since the national ECE Directorate made all of the books freely downloadable. Each book ends with a teaching guide, supporting meaningful picture book reading and engagement with young children. And the teachers and mentors are now published authors: each picture book ends with a photograph and story about the author.

Readers of this blog are invited to visit and recommend the site and download them here. This is a momentous cultural achievement that embodies the tireless commitment of teachers and mentors to young children and their stories!


Conceptual PlayWorld

Picturebooks are a central feature in the Conceptual PlayWorld model launched in March this year as part of a larger five-year programme of research called the Conceptual PlayLab (2019 – 2024) at Monash University, Peninsula Campus in Victoria, Australia. The Conceptual PlayWorld is a model of intentional teaching that Monash Professor Marilyn Fleer developed based on extensive research and experience working with young children and how they form concepts in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

A Conceptual PlayWorld is an imaginary scenario created by an educator where young children are invited to go on imaginary journeys, meet and solve challenges, and learn STEM concepts – all while playing. A Conceptual PlayWorld can be inspired by a children’s book or a fairy tale story, and it can be setup in an average classroom. Imagination is the limit!

This imaginary world enables educators to deliver play-based programs for young children where they get to experience and live through concepts that would otherwise be difficult to explain. PlayWorlds might last for a week, a month or even a term whereas Pop-up PlayWorlds may last only for a morning.

There are five steps for creating a Conceptual PlayWorld and encouraging a love of STEM.

Step One: Selecting a story

Teachers are encouraged to start with a simple story such as Rosie’s walk (Hutchins, 1967), incorporate drama and learn about something like ‘prepositional language’ (on, over, under, behind, in front, etc.) and of course PLAY these concepts with children in your imaginary Rosie’s farm.

Some books used in schools and ECE settings to date include Rosie’s Walk (Pat Hutchins, 1967), Charlotte’s Web (E.B. White, 1952), The Secret Garden (Frances Hodgson Burnett, 1911).

Step Two: Designing the imaginary spaces

Step Three: Entering and exiting the PlayWorld

Step Four: Planning your problem to be solved

Step Five: Deciding what role you, as the teacher, will take in the PlayWorld

There is a downloadable App and a private Facebook page to support educators who want to be involved. For more information check out:

I recently visited the Conceptual PlayLab as part of a travel fellowship looking at STEEAM (STEM plus Environmental Education and the Arts). Now I am wondering what other Picturebooks might work as starters for Conceptual PlayWorlds. Remember they need to have a problem that needs to be solved – There’s a hippopotamus on our roof eating cake (Edwards, 1980) or a Possum in the house (Jensen, 1986); some emotional tension – Rosie the hen doesn’t know that the fox is following her; characters that children and teachers can be assigned in the PlayWorld, and possibly other characters that could be added to be part of the drama; and concepts related to STEM such as food security, spatial awareness or problem solving for example.

The possibility of maybe doing something associated with the Monash Conceptual PlayLab in Aotearoa New Zealand in the future is very exciting. Any picturebook suggestions can be emailed to


Taniwha, Gods and Monsters by Gerri Judkins

The 4th annual WaiPRU Picturebook Seminar on 28 October featured ‘Taniwha, Gods and Monsters’. The day was held in the Division of Education at the Hamilton campus of the University of Waikato, and featured a range of perspectives on the topic from presenters including teachers, EC Educators, librarians, illustrators, authors and a publisher.

This year the keynote speaker was illustrator and lecturer in Digital Media at Auckland University of Technology Zak Waipara (Ngāti Porou, Ngāti Ruapani, Rongowhakaata, Ngāti Kahungunu). In reference to his illustration of Tim Tipene’s Māui – Sun Catcher (Oratia, 2016). Zak talked about Māori myths as codes for living. He elaborated on the artistic and creative process and cultural knowledge used in placing this famous demigod and hero in a near future South Auckland setting with flax growing on the roadside, robot rugby on TV and GLOBAL WARNING sunscreen.

The programme this year included two Early Childhood Educators who discussed how they used traditional literature in their ECE settings. Helen Aitken, a preschool teacher at Wondernauts, shared an early childhood perspective of a selection of picture books on this theme. She reported that the children she works with viewed taniwha as good, bad and cute with Robyn Kahukiwa’s Taniwha (Viking Kestrel, 1986) seminal. Monsters were scary or imagined like The Gruffalo (Macmillan, 1999) by Julia Donaldson and Axel Scheffler and Pamela Allen’s Inside Mary Elizabeth’s House (Puffin, 2001). Using these books, they were able to explore guardianship/Kaitiakitanga, fear, and notions of power and protection. Kate Morgan from Auckland Point Kindergarten in Nelson focused on the Māori creation story In the Beginning by Peter Gossage. She told us about how this book is shared in many ways with their children, with wall stories and performances in addition to reading it; the children are sometimes overheard retelling it to one another.

Nicola Daly shared Darryn Joseph’s presentation. His book characters “ride on taniwha, hide from Atua, or attempt to tame massive Māori monsters”. He outlined his creative process and how he treated supernatural beings in Kaito (2007), Tinirau rāua ko Kae (2007) and Hewa (2009). He has referred to 14 Māori gods in his most recent bilingual picturebook, Whakarongo ki ō Tūpuna / Listen to Your Ancestors (Oratia, 2019), illustrated by Munro Te Whata.

Joan Gibbons, a retired librarian, looked at what picture book monsters traditionally are, from cruel, wicked and inhuman to harmless and friendly. She explained that monsters can be avoided or tricked or will kill us if we don’t kill them first. We were astonished by Alice M Coats’ The Story of Horace (Coward-McCann, 1939) and delighted by Good Rosie (Penguin Random House, 2018) from Kate DiCamillo and cartoonist Harry Bliss.

The programme also included two presentations from librarians- both local and national. Leigh Takirau and Suzanne Hardy from the National Library’s Reading Services for Schools Team celebrated their range of books on taniwha including hard-to-find older New Zealand titles like Robyn Kahukiwa’s The Forgotten Taniwha (Puffin, 2009). They have picture books on Atua and gods from many cultures. Gameedah Jonas and Shannon Cooper from Hamilton City Libraries showed, with examples, how exploring stories of taniwha, gods and monsters passes on traditional and cultural ways of knowing and lessons are learnt. Gameedah read The Wide Mouthed Frog by Keith Falkner (Dial Books, 1996).

Julia Marshall from Gecko Press, just back from the Frankfurt Book Fair, suggested looking fears and monsters in the eye to scare them, or invite them in and experience the frisson of fear in the safety of a lap. We learnt about the funny side of bad in books like Inside the Villains (Gecko Press, 2018) by Clotilde Perrin and I am Strong (Gecko Press, 2011) by Mario Ramos. Fear, in a picture book, said Julia, is to be recommended.

The day ended with an engaging presentation from Helen Villers from The University of Auckland’s Faculty of Education who suggested that teachers capitalize on freaky, ferocious and fearsome monsters as critical sources for effective teaching and successful learning. She used wolves, vilified in many picture books as an example. She showed us how wolves can be seen in another light in When the Wolves Returned: Restoring Nature’s Balance in Yellowstone (Bloomsbury, 2008) by Dorothy Hinshaw Patent.

All in all, this was a stimulating day, full of new and old picturebooks. We gained insights into how they are created, and how they can be used in educational settings. The topic for the 2020 WaiPRU seminar (to be held in November) was announced as ‘Silent or Wordless Picturebooks’. We’re looking forward to it already!

Gerri Judkins has worked in school libraries for twenty-five years. During her eighteen years as Librarian at Southwell School in Hamilton, she shared her passion for children’s literature and trained teams for the Kids’ Lit Quiz

A member of SLANZA (School Library Association of New Zealand Aotearoa) since 2001, she served two years on the National Executive and presented at six of SLANZA’s biennial conferences. In 2005 she received a SLANZA Merit Award for Literacy and Enjoyment of Reading. Secretary of the Waikato Children’s Literature Association, she received the 2012 Storylines Betty Gilderdale Award for services to Children’s Literature